General Science

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This course covers topics from General Science up to class 10 level. The course is divided into Physics, Chemistry and Biology.

Course Coverage

  • Need for measurement, precision and accuracy
  • Units of measurements: SI units, derived units, multiples and sub-multiples, correct way of expressing units
  • Measurement of length, mass and time
  • Least count and range of meter scale, measuring tape, measuring cylinder, pan balance, stop watch, quartz clock
  • Dimensions, Dimensional Formulas

  • Types of motion: translational, rotational and oscillatory
  • Uniform and non-uniform motion
  • Distance and displacement
  • Speed, average speed, velocity and acceleration
  • Graphical representation: distance-time and speed-time graphs
  • Equations of motion
  • Uniform circular motion
  • First law of motion, Inertia
  • Momentum, Conservation of momentum
  • Second law of motion
  • Third law of motion
  • Friction

  • Work done by a force
  • Relation between work and energy
  • Unit of energy
  • Types of energy: mechanical (kinetic and potential), thermal, light, sound, electrical, chemical and nuclear
  • Power and its unit
  • Transformation and conservation of energy

  • Thrust and Pressure
  • Hydrostatics
  • Elasticity
  • Surface Tension, Flow of Liquids
  • Viscosity
  • Buoyancy and Archimedes Principle

  • Force of gravitation
  • Gravitational law
  • Acceleration due to gravity
  • Mass and weight
  • Motion of an object under gravity in one dimension
  • Free fall and weightlessness

  • Nature and characteristics of waves
  • Transverse and longitudinal
  • Types of waves: mechanical (Sound) and electromagnetic waves, propagation
  • Characteristics and nature of sound
  • Measure & Quality of Sound
  • Reflection of sound (SONAR)

  • Thermal energy and temperature
  • Effects of heat
  • Thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases
  • Change of state and latent heat
  • Specific heat
  • Measurement of temperature
  • Transfer of Heat
  • Conductors and Insulators

  • Reflection of light: image formation by a plane and a spherical mirror
  • Mirror formula
  • Applications of mirrors
  • Refraction of light
  • Formation of image by a lens
  • Lens formula
  • Magnification of image and power of lens
  • Use of lenses in correcting defects of vision
  • Dispersion of light through glass prism
  • Spectrum of white light
  • Scattering of light and its applications

  • Electrical charges
  • Electrostatic force
  • Electrostatic potential and electric current
  • Electric cell
  • Conductors and Insulators
  • Ohm’s law
  • Resistances in series and parallel
  • Heating effect of electric current and its applications
  • Commercial unit of electric energy
  • Electric power

  • Magnets and magnetic field, Field lines
  • Magnetic effect of electric current
  • Magnetic field due to a current carrying solenoid
  • Electromagnet, electric bell
  • Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field
  • Electromagnetic induction
  • Direct current and alternating current
  • Electric circuits
  • Hazards of electricity and safety measures

  • Particulate nature of matter
  • States of matter - Solid, Liquid and Gas
  • Conversion of states
  • Effect of factors like pressure and temperature
  • Elements, compounds and mixture
  • Homogeneous and Heterogeneous mixtures
  • Solutions and concentration of solutions
  • Suspensions
  • Separation of mixtures and purification

  • Law of Chemical Combinations
  • Dalton's Atomic Theory
  • Atoms and Molecules
  • Atomic and molecular masses
  • Mole concept, Avogrado number, Molar Mass
  • Chemical Equation
  • Type of Reactions
  • Charged particles in matter
  • Thomson model, Rutherford Model, Bohr Model
  • Neutrons
  • Distribution of Electrons in Various Shells
  • Valency, Atomic number and Mass number
  • Isotopes and isobars
  • Average or fractional atomic mass

  • Noble gas configuration as stable configuration
  • Combination of elements through transfer of electrons - ionic bonds
  • Properties of ionic substances
  • Combination of elements through sharing of electrons - covalent bonds
  • Single, double and triple bonds
  • Lewis-dot formula
  • Properties of covalent substances

  • Indicators
  • Dissociation of Acids
  • Strong and Weak acids
  • Reactions of Acids
  • Dissociation of Bases
  • Strong and Weak Bases
  • Reaction of Bases
  • Self Dissociation of Water
  • Neutral, Acidic and Basic Solutions
  • pH
  • Salts
  • Commonly used salts - Baking Soda, Washing Soda, Plaster of Paris, Bleaching Powder

  • Early efforts at classifying elements - Dobereiner’s Triads, Newlands’ Law of Octaves
  • Mendeleev’s Periodic Law
  • Modern Periodic Law, Periodic Table
  • Types of elements
  • Periodic Trends - atomic size and metallic character

  • Physical properties
  • Chemical properties of metals - reactions with oxygen, water and with common acids and bases
  • Corrosion
  • Reaction of non-metals with oxygen
  • Source of metals
  • Reactivity series of metals
  • Uses

  • Properties of carbon
  • Allotropes
  • Compounds of carbon
  • Oxides
  • Catenation properties of carbon - Chains, branches and rings
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, Homologous series, Isomerism, IUPAC Nomenclature
  • Functional derivatives, Alcohols
  • Useful compounds of carbon - Ethanol and Acetic acid

  • Classification - five kingdoms
  • Biodiversity, levels of biodiversity, patterns of diversity
  • Biosphere and Ecosystem
  • History of Life on Earth - Prebiotic Earth conditions, Origin of life and its diversification
  • Evolution: Darwin’s contributions, Neo-Darwinism
  • Major events in the history of life
  • Human evolution

  • Cell as a basic unit of living organisms, Cell theory
  • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic Cells
  • Plant and animal cells
  • Biomolecules - DNA, RNA & protein synthesis
  • Cell structure: organelles and their functions
  • Cell division - mitosis, meiosis
  • Cell to tissues - Plant and animal tissues and their functions
  • Stem cell technology

  • Energy for living, harnessing energy by photosynthesis
  • Heterotrophy as a mode of nutrition, Nutritional disorders, balanced diet
  • Respiration - organs (lungs and gills)
  • Circulation (transport) in plants and animals
  • Excretion
  • Technological advances in medical diagnosis and treatment: ECG & Dialysis
  • Nervous system - brain, spinal cord, neurons, nerves
  • Major endocrine glands and their secretions, functions, hormone deficiency disorders
  • Sense organs - vision, hearing and taste, eye

  • Reproduction in plants and animals
  • Asexual and sexual reproduction
  • Tissue culture and cloning
  • Human reproduction
  • Sexually transmitted diseases, HIV and AIDS
  • Heredity and variation
  • Mendelian inheritance
  • Chromosomes
  • Genes - DNA replication, sex determination, blood groups
  • Human genome
  • Hereditary disorders
  • Genetic engineering, Genetic counseling

  • Food Production - Agriculture, fisheries, animal husbandry, live stock management, animal breeding
  • Role of technology and biotechnology in food production
  • Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition
  • Photosynthesis
  • Components of food
  • Communicable and non-communicable diseases
  • Causes, mode of transmission, symptoms, prevention and control  of influenza, tuberculosis, malaria, dengue, amoebiasis
  • Health disorders caused by environmental pollution
  • Immunization
  • First Aid
  • Diagnostic tools - X-ray, MRI and Ultrasound

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